Small fig tree
来源: 网络   发布时间: 2014-12-17 19:56   2971 次浏览   大小:  16px  14px  12px
本文引自网络,为英文。主要介绍无花果的分类等基本知识和无花果苗培育。

The common fig is grown for its edible fruit throughout the temperate world. It is also grown as an ornamental tree, and the cultivar 'Brown Turkey' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

Figs can be found in continental climates with hot summers as far north as Hungary and Moravia, and can be harvested up to four times per year. Thousands of cultivars, most named, have been developed as human migration brought the fig to many places outside its natural range.

Two crops of figs are potentially produced each year.[7] The first or breba crop develops in the spring on last year's shoot growth. In contrast, the main fig crop develops on the current year's shoot growth and ripens in the late summer or fall. The main crop is generally superior in both quantity and quality to the breba crop. However, some cultivars produce good breba crops (e.g., 'Black Mission', 'Croisic', and 'Ventura').

There are basically three types of edible figs:[8]

Persistent (or common) figs have all female flowers that do not need pollination for fruiting; the fruit can develop through parthenocarpic means. This is a popular horticulture fig for home gardeners. Dottato (Kadota), Black Mission, Brown Turkey, Brunswick, and Celeste are some representative cultivars.
Caducous (or Smyrna) figs require cross pollination by the fig wasp with pollen from caprifigs for the fruit to mature. If not pollinated the immature fruits drop. Some cultivars are Smyrne (Lob Incir in Turkey) - (Calimyrna in the Great Central Valley USA), Marabout, Inchàrio, and Zidi.
Intermediate (or San Pedro) figs set an unpollinated breba crop, but need pollination for the later main crop. Examples are Lampeira, King, and San Pedro.
The fig likes dry sunny sites, the soil dry or drained. Excessive growth has to be limited to promote the fruiting. It thrives in both sandy and rocky soil. As the sun is really important it is better to avoid shades. Some varieties are more adapted to harsh and wet climates.

 

 

 

Propagation

Figs plants are easy to propagate through several methods. Propagation using seeds is not the preferred method since vegetative methods exist that are quicker and more reliable, that is, they do not yield the inedible caprifigs. However, those desiring to can plant seeds of dried figs with moist sphagnum moss or other media in a zip lock bag and expect germination in a few weeks to several months. The tiny plants can be transplanted out little by little once the leaves open, and despite the tiny initial size can grow to 1 foot (30 cm) or more within one year from planting seeds.

Main vegetative propagation, or spring propagation: before the tree starts growth, cut 15–25 cm (6–10 inch) shoots that have healthy buds at their ends, and set into a moist mix of soil and peat-moss located in shade in first time, buried 3/4 of their length. Larger diameter stems are better – intermediate cuttings on branches can be done too (up to diam. 3/4") – but in this case the upper side must be cut inclined, thus marking the upper part, to avoid planting upside-down. Grow one year in a nursery, in a pot or in-ground spaced one foot apart, till winter. Before the plant starts growth, plant it in the desired final location.

For propagation in the mid-summer months, air layer new growth in August (mid-summer) or insert hardened off 15–25 cm (6-10 inches) shoots into moist perlite or a sandy soil mix, keeping the cuttings shaded until new growth begins; then gradually move them into full sun. For spring propagation, before the tree starts growth, cut 15–25 cm (6-10 inches) shoots that have healthy buds at their ends, and set into a moist perlite and/or sandy soil mix located in the shade. Once the cuttings start to produce leaves, bury them up to the bottom leaf to give the plant a good start in the desired location.

An alternative propagation method is bending over a taller branch, scratching the bark to reveal the green inner bark, then pinning the scratched area tightly to the ground. Within a few weeks, roots will develop and the branch can be clipped from the mother plant and transplanted where desired.

 

 

 

网络直译,仅供参考

小无花果

常见的无花果种植的食用水果整个温带世界。也成长为一个装饰性的树,和品种“布朗土耳其”获得了英国皇家园艺学会奖的花园价值。[

无花果品种可以发现在大陆气候炎热的夏季北至匈牙利和摩拉维亚,可以收获到每年四次。成千上万的无花果品种,大多数命名,被开发为人类迁移带来了无花果自然范围以外的许多地方。


两种作物的无花果可能每年生产。[7]第一或breba作物发展去年春天拍的增长。相比之下,主要无花果作物发展今年拍摄的增长和成熟在夏末或下降。主要作物通常优于breba作物的数量和质量。然而,一些品种产生好的breba作物(如。“黑任务”,“Croisic”,“文图拉”)。


基本上有三种类型的食用无花果:[8]


持久(或常见)无花果都雌花,果期不需要授粉;水果可以通过parthenocarpic意味着发展。这是一个流行的家庭园丁园艺无花果。Dottato(Kadota),黑色的使命,布朗土耳其、不伦瑞克和天蓝色是一些代表性的品种。

易脱落的(或士麦那)无花果无花果黄蜂需要交叉授粉的花粉从野生无花果果实成熟。如果不是授粉不成熟的水果。有些无花果品种Smyrne(Lob Incir在土耳其)——(在美国伟大的中央山谷Calimyrna),隐士,Inchario,Zidi。

中间型(或圣佩德罗)无花果设置一个unpollinated breba作物,但需要授粉后主要作物。例如Lampeira,国王,圣佩德罗。

无花果干喜欢阳光明媚的网站,土壤干燥或排水。过度增长促进果期必须是有限的。它在砂质土壤和岩石。太阳是非常重要的最好避免阴影。一些品种更适应潮湿的恶劣气候。

 

 

无花果苗育苗

通过几种方法培育无花果苗。使用种子繁殖无花果苗不是首选的方法,因为营养繁殖培育无花果苗更快、更可靠,也就是说,它们不产生不能食用的野生无花果。然而,那些希望可以用潮湿的泥炭藓植物种子的干无花果或其他媒体在一个拉链袋和期待萌发在几个星期几个月。可以移植了一点点微小的植物叶子打开之后,尽管小初始大小可以长到1英尺(30厘米)或更多在一年内从种植种子。

主要营养繁殖无花果苗,或者春天繁殖:在树前开始增长,减少15 - 25厘米(6 - 10英寸)健康的味蕾在结束拍摄,并设置成一个湿润的土壤和泥煤苔位于阴影在第一次埋3/4的长度。大直径茎是好,中间岩屑在树枝上也可以做(直径。3/4”),但在这种情况下,上面必须削减倾斜,从而标志着上方,避免种植倒。生长一年幼儿园,一壶或间隔1英尺的掩埋式,到冬天。在植物开始生长,植物所需的最终位置。

无花果苗繁殖的仲夏月,空气层(仲夏)8月新增长或插入硬15 - 25厘米(6 - 10英寸)拍摄到潮湿的珍珠岩或沙质土壤混合,使岩屑阴影,直到新的增长开始,然后逐渐转移到阳光充足。春天的繁殖,在这棵树开始增长,减少15 - 25厘米(6 - 10英寸)健康的味蕾在结束拍摄,并设置成湿润珍珠岩和/或沙质土壤混合位于阴影。一旦岩屑开始产生叶子,埋到叶底部给工厂一个好的开始在所需的位置。

另一种无花果苗繁殖方法是高压,剪伤树皮,露出绿色的树皮内,然后把挠区域紧密在地上。在几周内,将生根和并可以将小无花果苗从母株上剪下和移植。

关键词:无花果、无花果苗、无花果品种

 
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